پایان نامه :نظرات مدرسین در مورد تاثیرات دو روش تصحیح خطاها به نحو غیرمستقیم و تصحیح فرا زبانی بر تلفظ زبان­آموزان مبتدی- قسمت 2

of Recast in second and foreign language acquisition.

In these studies the greater effectiveness of Recasts lies in situations where learners are given additional cues that help them recognize Recasts as feedback on pronunciation error.

Much like explicit error correction, Metalinguistic Feedback diverts the focus of conversation towards rules features of the target language. Metalinguistic Feedback contains either comments, information or questions related to the well-formedness of the learners’ utterance, without explicit providing the correct form. According to Lyster and Randa, 1997, Metalinguistic comments generally indicate that there is an error somewhere. Metalinguistic information generally provides either some grammatical Metalanguage that refers to the nature of the error (e.g., “It’s masculine”) or a word definition in the case of lexical errors. Metalinguistic questions also point to the nature of the error but attempt to elicit the information from the learners (e.g., “Is it feminine?”).

Metalinguistic Feedback points to the nature of the error but attempts to elicit the information from the learner. This type of feedback shows the learners or forces them to think about why something in the language functions the way that it does, i.e.: “Is that how you would say it in English?” In brief Metalinguistic Statement aims at eliciting a self-correction from the learner.

According to Lyster (2007), Metalinguistic Feedback can lead learners to self-repair, whereas Recasts can lead only to repetition of correct forms by learners. Lyster (2007) argued that self-repair following a Metalinguistic Feedback requires a deeper level of processing than repetition of a teacher’s Recast. Self-repair is thus more likely to destabilize interlanguage forms as learners are pushed to reanalyze interlanguage representations and to attend to the retrieval of alternative forms. In contrast to self-repair following a Metalinguistic Feedback, repetition of Recast does not engage learners in a similarly deep level of processing nor necessitate any reanalysis.

Teaching pronunciation involves a variety of challenges. To begin with, teachers often find that they do not have enough time in class to give proper attention to this aspect of English instruction. When they do find the time to address pronunciation, the instruction often amounts to the presentation and practice of a series of tedious and seemingly unrelated topics. Drilling sounds over and over again (e.g., minimal pair work) often leads to discouraging results, and discouraged learners and teachers who prefer to avoid pronunciation altogether.

There are also psychological factors that affect the learning of pronunciation in ways that are not so true of studying grammar or vocabulary. For one thing, the most basic elements of speaking are deeply personal .According to Acton, w. 2002, our sense of self and community are bound up in the speech-rhythms of our first language (L1). These rhythms were learned in the first year of life and are deeply rooted in the minds of the learners. Therefore it is common for learners to feel uneasy when they hear themselves speak with the rhythm of a second language (L2). They find that they “sound foreign” to themselves, and this is troubling for them. Although the uneasiness is usually unconscious, it can be a major barrier to improve intelligibility in the L2.

A teacher can help overcome this psychological barrier and other challenges by thinking of the goal of pronunciation instruction not as helping learners to sound like native speakers but as helping them to learn the core elements of spoken English so that they can be easily understood by others. In other words, teachers and learners can overcome the frustrations, difficulties, and boredom often associated with pronunciation by focusing their attention on the development of pronunciation that is “listener friendly”. After all, English pronunciation does not amount to mastery of a list of sounds or isolated words. Instead, it amounts to learning and practicing the specifically English way of making a speaker’s thoughts easy to follow.

This research provided teachers’ awareness of the feedback practices adopted in the classroom & strongly insisted on showing the teachers’ perceptions about Recast and Metalinguistic Feedback’s effects on the pronunciation which is the way in which a language or a particular word or sound is pronounced. .

(ممکن است هنگام انتقال از فایل اصلی به داخل سایت بعضی متون به هم بریزد یا بعضی نمادها و اشکال درج نشود ولی در فایل دانلودی همه چیز مرتب و کامل است)

تعداد صفحه : 152

قیمت : چهارده هزار تومان

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